Book review by Mumia Abu-Jamal
Further, the author, a law professor at Ohio State University’s Moritz College of Law, Michelle Alexander, digs deep into U.S. history and deeper still into U.S. criminal law and practice to conclude that the barbarous system of repression and control known commonly as Jim Crow had a rebirth in this era. That’s why she calls it the new Jim Crow.
This system of legal discrimination came into being much as the first one did. After the rout of the South by the Civil War, millions of newly freed Africans exercised these new rights under Reconstruction. Black men became senators and legislators across the South. But this period was short lived and, as soon as possible, states passed harsh laws known as Black Codes, which denied rights and criminalized behavior by Blacks and exposed them to the repression of Southern prisons, where convicts were leased out to labor for others; it was the rebirth of slavery by other means.
This present era began at the height of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, when millions of Blacks fought for their rights denied for more than a century.
Alexander concludes that this new system, this new coalescence of economic and political interests, targeted Blacks, especially those engaged in the drug industry, as the human capital with which to provide massive construction, huge prison staffs and the other appendages of the apparatus of state repression.
But perhaps Alexander’s most salient point is her finding that America’s Black population constitutes a “racial caste” that feeds and perpetuates mass incarceration (page 195).
Indeed, every other societal structure supports this superstructure – from broken schools, to de-industrialization, to population concentration in isolated urban ghettos, to the violence of police and the silence of the Black middle class.
One might argue that such a claim seems unsustainable when we see a Black president, hundreds of Black political figures and those in entertainment and sports. But Alexander explains that every system allows exceptions, for they serve to legitimize the system and mask its ugliness and its gross effects upon the majority of Blacks.
For example, while it’s well known that apartheid was an overtly racist system, it allowed Asian and even African American diplomats to live and work in such a regime by the political expediency of identifying them as “honorary whites” in their official papers.
When comparing both systems, Alexander argues that the U.S. imprisons more Blacks both in raw number and per capita than South Africa at the height of apartheid!
The New Jim Crow – indeed!
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