10 steps to dictatorship: Why the grassroots movement in Haiti is taking to the streets against President Michel Martelly


by Charlie Hinton, Haiti Action Committee

Port au Prince Haiti anti-Martelly protest 111813 by APUpdate since this report was written: At great personal risk, Haitians demonstrated massively in cities throughout the country on Sept. 30 and Oct. 17, calling for President Michel Martelly to step down. Both dates commemorate important coup d’états in Haitian history.

By choosing these historically significant dates, the Haitian grassroots majority is clearly saying they want an end to the 10-year military occupation that has followed the coup that overthrew elected president Jean-Bertrand Aristide on Feb. 29, 2004. Martelly’s police force brutally broke up some demonstrations with tear gas and beatings.

Demonstrators have reported the police used a very “powerful” gas, which surprised them in its potency and aerial reach.

In late October, students in Cap Haitien, demonstrating to support teachers demanding an increase in pay, were tear gassed so viciously that 60 were injured, four seriously.

The next day, students in the State University of Port-au-Prince, demonstrating in support of attorney Andre Michel (see No. 7 below), were gassed for hours, even after they had been pushed back to their campus. It went on so long that some legislators went on the radio to demand that it be stopped.

Students in the State University of Port-au-Prince were gassed for hours by police using an unusually “powerful” gas, even after they had been pushed back to their campus. It went on so long that some legislators went on the radio to demand that it be stopped.

On Nov. 6, lawyers marched in Port-au-Prince demanding an end to threats and harassment for those willing to take on cases involving Martelly’s corruption. They also called for the resignation of the chief prosecutor.

And on Nov. 7, thousands marched, chanting “Aba Martelly” (“Down with Martelly”). Haitian police attacked the demonstration with tear gas and beatings. Three people were shot and wounded.

1. Who is Michel Martelly? Martelly grew up during the 27-year dictatorship of Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier and his son, Jean Claude “Baby Doc.” He reportedly joined the Duvalierist death squad, the Tonton Macoutes, at the age of 15 and later attended Haiti’s military academy. Under Baby Doc, Martelly, a popular musician, ran the Garage, a nightclub patronized by army officers and members of Haiti’s tiny ruling class.

Anti-Martelly, pro-Aristide march, Martelly the thieving cat, on 21st anniversary of 1991 coup against Lavalas 093012, wAfter Baby Doc’s fall in February 1986, a mass democratic movement, long repressed by the Duvaliers, burst forth and became known as Lavalas (“flood”), from which emerged Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a popular liberation theology Catholic priest, who was elected president in 1990 with 67 percent of the vote in the first free and fair election in Haiti’s history.

Martelly quickly became a bitter opponent of Lavalas, attacking the popular movement in his songs played widely on Haitian radio.

Martelly “was closely identified with sympathizers of the 1991 military coup that ousted former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide,” the Miami Herald observed in 1996, and ran with members of the vicious FRAPH death squad from that period, infamous for gang rapes and killing with impunity.

On the day of Aristide’s return to Haiti in 2011, after eight years of forced exile in South Africa and two days before the “run-off” election, Martelly was caught in a video on YouTube insulting Aristide and Lavalas: “The Lavalas are so ugly. They smell like s**t. F**k you, Lavalas. F**k you, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.”

2. The fraudulent presidential election of 2010-2011: In the presidential election cycle of 2010-2011, Haiti’s Electoral Council banned Aristide’s Fanmi Lavalas Party from participation, which de-legitimized the whole corrupt process. Voter turnout was less than 25 percent in the primaries and less than 20 percent in the “run-off.”

The top two candidates announced after the primaries were the wife of a former pro-Duvalier president and the son-in-law of Rene Preval, the president at the time. Martelly was declared third, but his supporters demonstrated violently.

An OAS commission, with the full support to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who flew to Port au Prince at the height of the Egyptian revolution, ruled that Martelly had finished second. He received $6 million from an anonymous donor in Florida to hire a PR firm that had worked on the campaigns of Felipe Calderón in Mexico and John McCain in the U.S.

3. Corruption: Corruption scandals have followed Martelly since he refused to divulge who funded his campaign for president.

  • Bribes – Award-winning Dominican Republic journalist Nuria Piera broke the story in April 2012 (later reported in Time) that Martelly was alleged to have accepted $2.6 million in bribes during and after the 2010 election to ensure that a Dominican construction company would receive contracts under his presidency. In addition, the vote to make Laurent Lamothe the prime minister is known in Haiti as the “tout moun jwenn vote” (“everyone got their cut” vote).
  • Surcharge on international calls and money transfers for “education” – Questionable new taxes have also fed controversy. A $1.50 tax on money transfers and a 5 cent per minute tax on phone calls to Haiti are alleged by Martelly to support education, but the poor majority continue to face unaffordable school fees, and critics say no money from this tax has gone to schools. Moreover, Haitian teachers have been marching to demand back pay. Martelly’s new taxes were not ratified by or presented to Haiti’s Parliament, making them illegal.
  • Travel expenses – When traveling, which he does often, Martelly’s entourage receives an outrageous per diem from the Haitian government. According to Sen. Moise Jean-Charles, Martelly gets $20,000 a day, his wife $10,000 a day, his children $7,500, and others in his inner circle get $4,000 daily.
  • A plan to establish an illegal parallel customs system to circumvent legislative control – This allegedly involved the selling of a membership card and gun to anyone who wanted to be part of the Martelly gang. The membership privileges included tax-exempt status at customs. The program had to be scratched when the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration complained about members facilitating drug transport on the strength of their membership.

4. Rewriting and undermining Haiti’s Constitution: The overthrow of Baby Doc in 1986 led to the creation of a new democratic Constitution in 1987, ratified in a referendum by an overwhelming majority of Haitians. It recognized Haitian Kreyol as an official language, along with French, and legalized Vodun, the spiritual practice of the majority of Haitians. It provided for grassroots participation in national decision-making, decentralized the nation’s finances and political structure, and provided for protection of human rights.

GÇÿAba MartelyGÇÖ (GÇÿDown with MartellyGÇÖ) graffiti Port au Prince, Haiti 093012On June 12, 2012, Martelly announced new amendments, which concentrate executive power and herald the return of Duvalier-style dictatorship. The new illegally amended Constitution, written by non-legislators and never seen nor voted on by the Parliament prior to its publication, creates a top down method of choosing a Permanent Electoral Council to run elections, undermining grassroots participation and centralizing control from above.

It allows the president to appoint the prime minister after merely “consulting” the heads of the two chambers of Parliament instead of requiring Parliamentary ratification. In cases of “presidential vacancy,” the new amendments make the prime minister the provisional president, so presidents can resign, appoint the prime minister to succeed them, and thereby maintain perpetual control.

New amendments provide that a “general budget” and a “general expenditures report” can replace line item annual budgets, thus limiting parliamentary oversight of the budget.

New amendments return Duvalier era and other retrograde laws, including:

  • A 1935 law on “superstitious beliefs,” which would ban Vodun once again.
  • A 1977 law establishing the Court of State Security to increase state surveillance and repression.
  • A 1969 law that condemns all “imported doctrines,” thereby attacking freedom of thought and freedom of association. Violation of this new law can result in the DEATH PENALTY. The 1987 Haitian Constitution had eliminated the death penalty.

5. Restoring the army: In one of the most popular moves of his administration, President Aristide disbanded the hated Haitian army in 1995. Since the coup that overthrew Aristide for the second time in 2004, U.N. troops and police, currently numbering 8,754 uniformed personnel, have occupied Haiti. One of Martelly’s campaign promises was to restore the Haitian Army, and now new Haitian troops are being trained by Ecuador and Brazil. In addition, well-armed former military and paramilitary personnel have occupied militia camps since early 2012, supported by Martelly.

6. Return of the death squads: Martelly has issued pink identity cards with a photo for $30 to selected supporters, promising many benefits to those who hold them, like jobs and impunity from prosecution. During the Duvalier period, every Tonton Macoute received a card that provided many privileges, like free merchandise from any store entered, entitlement to coerced sex, and fear and respect from people in general.

Sen. John Joel Joseph has identified senators that he claims are marked for assassination. He identified the people who have been paying the “hit squads” on behalf of Martelly. He denounced one of the men as an escaped criminal who had been caught red handed with a “near death” victim behind his vehicle. Said victim sent the police to a house where two more victims could be found.

Sen. Joseph identified the leader of the death squad and his vehicle, denouncing the group as the one which recently assassinated a grassroots militant. He accused the president and his wife of pressuring the chief of police to remove the senators’ security detail, in order to facilitate their assassinations. He denounced a previous instance when Martelly tried to pressure former police chief Mario Andresol to integrate a hit-man into the police to assassinate Sen. Moise Jean Charles.

7. Death of a judge: Martelly set up his wife and son as head of governmental projects, but with no parliamentary oversight. A Haitian citizen, Enold Florestal, filed suit with attorney Andre Michel before Judge Jean Serge Joseph, maintaining that the Martellys were siphoning off large amounts of state monies, which the Haitian Senate has no jurisdiction over.

Judge Joseph moved the case to the next judicial level, which required depositions from the Martellys and various governmental ministers. Enraged, Martelly and Prime Minister Lamothe called two meetings with the judge – which they deny took place – to demand he kill the case, the second on July 11. The judge drank a beverage offered him at that meeting.

On July 12 Judge Joseph became violently ill and died on July 13. Haitian police arrested Florestal on Aug. 16 after viciously beating him, and Haitian authorities have issued a warrant for the arrest of attorney Michel, who has gone into hiding. A commission of the Haitian Parliament is now calling for the impeachment of Martelly based on illegal meetings with the judge, interference in legal matters and threats to those involved in the case.

Since then, Enold Florestal and his brother, who’s completely uninvolved with the case, have been arrested and remain in jail. On Oct. 22, police stopped attorney Andre Michel and demanded to search his car. He refused without a judge present to prevent tampering or planting of evidence. The action quickly turned into a standoff between police forces and a large crowd that was gathered to defend Michel. Michel was eventually summoned to appear in court the next day.

In court, the prosecutor told the judge he did not have charges to file, but for Michel to not leave the courtroom. Several deputies and senators who were present whisked Michel out of the courtroom and took him to an unknown location, where he remains at the time of this report.

8. Corrupting the judiciary and Parliament: The Martelly regime is working to establish executive control over the judicial system through the use of “controlled” prosecutors and judges. In violation of the Constitution, he appointed as Supreme Court chief justice, Anel Alexis Joseph, who is 72. Haitian law says a judge must be 65 or under to be named to this position.

Anti-Martelly, pro-Aristide march red cards on 21st anniversary of 1991 coup against Lavalas 093012, webThe chief justice also leads the commission that regulates the entire judicial system, so Judge Anel Alexis Joseph is using his power to block an investigation into the death of Judge Jean Serge Joseph and to protect Martelly and his henchmen from all legal challenges, thereby granting impunity.

Martelly has also corrupted the legislative branch that could bring charges against members of the executive. He ordered the arrest of Deputy Arnel Belizaire in spite of parliamentary immunity and his legal counsel’s advice.

He has so far failed to call elections for 10 senate seats in January and is trying to force the 10 senators whose terms he says are up – they say in 2015, not 2014 – to leave office. Since elections have still not been held for 10 additional seats, if these new 10 seats are vacated, it would leave the 30 member Senate without a quorum, allowing Martelly to dissolve the Parliament and rule by decree.

9. Reactionary economic policy: Martelly enforces the Clinton-Bush plan for economic “development” of Haiti through sweatshops, tourism, and the selling of oil and mining rights to transnational corporations. Under this plan, money donated for earthquake relief has been used to build a duty free export manufacturing zone in the north of Haiti, which was not affected by the earthquake, and several luxury hotels in Port-au-Prince. The Clinton-Bush Haiti Fund made a $2 million equity investment in a hotel called the Royal Oasis to give foreign tourists and investors an “oasis” to escape the miserable conditions under which the majority of Haitians live.

At the same time, the Martelly regime viciously represses the economic activities of the poor super majority. The phone and money transfer taxes cut into their incomes. Taxes have been arbitrarily increased on imports, affecting small merchants. Thugs wearing masks have burnt markets in different cities, causing merchants to lose capital they had been accumulating for years, forcing them to raise new capital through usury loans. Street vendors are harassed and removed forcefully, then, after hours, their stands are looted.

10. Duvalierism returns to Haiti: Martelly warmly welcomed the January 2011 return to Haiti of Jean Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, one of the most brutal dictators of the 20th century, after his decades of luxurious exile in France. Duvalier still has many supporters in Haiti, some of whom are armed and have a history of killing political opponents.

Martelly’s government is filled with Duvalierists: Hardline former Haitian army officer David Bazile is now interior minister. Magalie Racine, daughter of notorious former Tonton Macoute militia chief Madame Max Adolphe, is Martelly’s youth and sports minister. Public Works Secretary of State Philippe Cinéas is the son of longtime Duvalierist figure Alix Cinéas, who was a member of the original neo-Duvalierist National Council of Government (CNG), which succeeded Duvalier after his fall in 1986. In addition, Duvalier’s son, Francois Nicolas Jean Claude Duvalier, is a close advisor to Martelly.

Conclusion: A major objective of the Duvalier dynasty was to institutionalize dictatorship through death squad brutality, supported by the United States and other powers. Martelly is an example of their policies having come to fruition. He’s restoring a government of impunity per the Duvalier era, building an administration of right wing ideologues who believe in dictatorship and who collaborate to sidestep all legislative and judicial controls.

His goal is to implement extreme neo-liberal economic policies on behalf of Haiti’s less than 1 percent with control over all natural resources. The people will be at their mercy for factory work and other “subservient” positions, under the boot of a U.N. occupation force of 8,754 army and police personnel, the beginnings of a restored army, paramilitary training camps, death squads, gangs and mafias that use the cover of the corrupted executive and judicial systems to operate.

The Haitian majority does not accept this return to the bad old days, however, and has been actively and massively protesting this repression for the past year. They deserve the support and solidarity of freedom loving people everywhere.

The Haiti Action Committee is online at www.haitisolidarity.net, email action.haiti@gmail.com. Charlie Hinton may be reached at ch_lifewish@yahoo.com. This story was originally published Sept. 25, 2013; it has been given a current date to reflect updated content.



  1. Wow. is this a joke? The opposition is organizing multiple rallies as they're latest recourse to take power… Welcome to Haiti… Martellys approval rate is at 70% in latest poll… The majority LOVES him here. .. These rallies are organized by the MOPOD Not a grassrootd movement but an alliance of the most hostile and radical parties in the country, They are the old power mongers whose sole intention is to capitalize from currupt practices and the old way of doing politics in Haiti. They are petrified of what Msrtelly represents CHANGE.. Every week they've accuse him of something crazier and its pure comedy. Some members of these groups you are glorifying were Involved in the worst crimes and many have criminal records. Haitian media uncovered a copy of their agreement contract this week, whose sole objective is to overthrow the president by any means. Rallying some people to fight for your cause, or any cause is easy in Haiti, or any poor country… Many of there parliamentary members organizing these rallies (opposition parties including Lavalas) have criminal records. Martelly's government has done more in 2 years then the last 30 years worth of presidents and his party will be re-elected easily. Please REALLY inform yourself, and dont believe hype.

    • Not so fast Gilles. Your remarks echo past stories. Always a spin right? I like Martelly but there have been some very strange stories coming out this past year with his involvement in the underworld that only Haiti knows best. We will see where this goes, but I will say this I have felt the feeling that something is about to POP!!! And it could be Martelly.

    • You mean 70% of the 1%, including foreigners?
      You say the rallies are being organized by the old power mongers? Who are you trying to kid? It's the 99% and this is completely obvious at a mere glance.
      And who is in Martelly's inner circle? Direct links to the old power mongers, the Duvalierists. The 1%. Martelly is retro, not change. The only change he represents is what goes into his bank account and those of his buddies who are indeed the worst criminals in Haiti.
      For example, Martelly's buddy Youri Latortue.
      Wikileaks uncovered a U.S. Embassy cable which described him as possibly “the most brazenly corrupt of leading Haitian politicians,” How brazen? At a Jun. 14, 2011 book signing of his " My Fight in the Parliament" he also signed one of his other titles, "The problem of drugs." Youri is a "well known drug-trafficker, gang godfather, and death-squad leader, according to the testimony and reports of many colleagues, crime witnesses and government officials, both Haitian and international." http://www.haiti-liberte.com/archives/volume4-50/
      And that's just the surface. Do you really want to get me started on that?
      Martelly's party will only be re-elected if the US controls the election and Haitians stay home and boycott it like they did last time. So, what did Martelly win….4.5% of the vote? 71.5 boycotted? http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/haiti-… (see page 2)
      Oh yah, they really LOVE him over there.
      You talking about the mining, sweatshop and "humanitarian" industry?

      Who's informing you? Let me guess.

  2. Martelly hasn't ever represented anything but a monstrous intrusion into the lives of 97% of Haiti. Anyone who can take his family and an 84 person entourage out of the country for 3 days and spend more than the GNP of the entire country for 3 years – and not care – is rotten to the core.

    Martelly was funded by the U.S. He was put in place by the U.S. He does NOTHING for the country but return it to the days when the people's blood ran red in the streets and the U.S. smiled at yet another dictatorship that people in the U.S. (massively ignorantly so) are not aware that they are supporting and funding. Get a grip, both of you, ragski and Gilles Christophe, even though I'm nearly certain that you know that the nonsense you are spewing is just that – nonsense.

    Martelly is a terrorist of the worst order, and when his U.S. puppet masters are through with him, he will be displaced just like Gerard Latortue – in the meantime, the people of Haiti are be paying for his excesses out of their already non-existent pockets. The money he has wasted in two years would feed the country for a decade. This is money that belongs to the people of Haiti. Yet here is another U.S. controlled despot spending it like its water – which will force the people of Haiti to repay it to the corrupt Euro-American governments that are 'loaning' it to an illegal government. This is the same thing that Haitians have had to do with the first 22 billion that was extorted from Haiti by the French.

    Not to mention the millions looted from the Haitian treasury by U.S. Marines in their 1915 – 1934 occupation of Haiti.

    Martelly's actions are despicable, and have broken every Haitian constitutional law that exists. People disappear who do not agree with his despotic rulership. Fanmi Lavalas is still outlawed. Occupiers rape and pillage at will. Haitian National Police rape and pillage at will. Meanwhile all of Haiti's natural resources – including the lives of the people – are being plundered by the U.S. and Europe.

    Neither of you have a grip, ragski and Christophe. Obviously you're both spin doctors for despots.

    How dare you speak of what's happening in Haiti as comedy? Since when is there anything comedic about the deaths of thousands of Haitian citizens at the hands foreign induced disease (cholera) roving death squads, the Haitian army, the return of a criminal who is even worse than Martelly – Baby Doc Duvalier – http://www.ijdh.org/duvalier-on-trial-justice-or-… – and the 9000 invading and occupying UN MINUSTAH forces been funny?

    If Martelly had 1/2 an active brain cell, he'd know that U.S. is using him. But I guess it is improper to expect intelligence from someone who considers it the height of superb musicianship to literally – show his bare ass naked butt cheeks to the world. There is only so much you can do with the raw material.

    But this is what you support. A criminal. A made in the U.S., unmitigatedly stupid criminal at that.

    Figures. Excrement attracts the same….

    Consider the following articles:

    What Lies Behind the Arrest of Martelly-Confidant Jojo Lorquet? http://haitianalysis.blogspot.com/2013/07/what-li

    Popular Democracy Under Attack in Haiti: Paramilitaries, Cronyism, and Corruption http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/11/15/popular-de

    Is Former Haitian Dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc' Duvalier Off the Hook for Human Rights Crimes? http://www.democracynow.org/2012/2/1/is_former_ha

    And please, you two inform yourselves, even though I'm positive you are pretending you don't know that Martelly and his ilk are criminals. That is what makes your words tragi-comedic, not the crisis in Haiti.

  3. Thank you for this article informing the outside world about what is happening in Haiti. The vast majority of Haitians are discontent with the corruption, power-grabbing, misplaced priorities, and threats of the Martelly government. The vast majority of haitians do not have hi-speed internet computers to post replies here trying to puff up the image of the neo-macoutes. The people will protest more and more against this regime. And I put the emphasis on PROTEST. The ongoing protests and organizing against this regime of the 1% in Haiti, is very different than the fraph-cia-mafioso-para-deathsquad campaign that wealthy traitors like martelly and wyclef backed at the turn of the century. Kenbe Fem my sisters and brothers

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